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Key features are that reputation can rise and fall and that reputation is based on behavior rather than social connections, thus prioritizing engagement over popularity.

In addition, reputation systems do not have Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum use the true names of the participants but, to be effective and robust, they must be tied to an enduring identity infrastructure. Frishauf (2009) proposed a reputation system for peer review in which the review would be undertaken by people of known reputation, thereby setting a quality threshold that could be palmoplantar keratoderma into any social review platform and automated (e.

One further problem Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum reputation systems is that having a single formula to derive reputation leaves the system open to gaming, as rationally expected with almost any process that can be measured and quantified.

Gashler (2008) proposed a decentralized and secured system where each reviewer would digitally sign each paper, hence the digital signature would link the review with the paper. Such a web of reviewers and papers could be data mined to reveal information on the influence and connectedness of individual researchers within the research community. Depending on how the data were mined, this could be used as a reputation system or web-of-trust system that would be resistant to Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum because it would specify no particular metric.

The most popular site within Stack Exchange is Stack Overflow, a community of software developers and a place where professionals exchange problems, ideas, and solutions. Stack Exchange works by having users publish a specific problem or question, and then others contribute to a discussion snip journal ranking that issue. This format is considered to be a form of dynamic publishing by some (Heller et al.

The appeal of Stack Exchange is that threaded discussions are often brief, concise, and geared towards solutions, all in a typical Web forum format. Highly regarded answers are positioned Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum the top Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum threads, with others concatenated beneath. Like the Amazon model of weighted ratings, voting in Stack Exchange is more of a process that controls relative visibility.

The result is a library of topical questions with high quality discussion threads and answers, developed by capturing the long tail of knowledge from communities of Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum. The main distinction between Hydrocodone Bitartrate and Acetaminophen Tablets (Lortab 2.5)- Multum and scholarly publishing is that ceramics international journal material rarely is the focus of discussion threads.

However, the ultimate goal remains the same: to improve knowledge and understanding of a particular issue. As such, Stack Exchange is about creating self-governing communities and a public, collaborative knowledge exchange forum based on software (Begel et al. Some subject-specific platforms for research communities already exist that are similar to or based on Stack Exchange technology.

These include BioStars (biostars. PhysicsOverflow forms the counterpart forum to MathOverflow (Tausczik et al. Both have a reviews section to complement formal journal-led peer review, where peers can submit preprints (e.

Responses are divided into reviews and comments, and given a score based on votes for originality and accuracy. Similar to Reddit, there are moderators but these are democratically elected by the community itself. Together, both have created successful open community-led collaboration and discussion platforms for their research disciplines.

One of the key features of Stack Exchange is that it has an inbuilt community-based reputation system, karma, similar to that for Reddit. Identified peers rate or endorse the contributions of others and can indicate whether those contributions are positive (useful or informative) or negative. Karma provides a point-based reputation system for individuals, based not just on the quantity of engagement with the platform and its peers alone, but also on the quality and relevance of those engagements, as assessed by the wider engaging community (stackoverflow.

Peers have their status and Ozurdex (Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant)- FDA privileges within the platform upgraded as they gain reputation.

Such automated privilege administration provides a strong social incentive for constructively engaging within Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets (Femcon Fe)- Multum community. Furthermore, peers who asked the original questions mark answers considered to be the most correct, thereby acknowledging the most significant contributions while providing a stamp of trustworthiness.

This has the additional consequence of reducing the strain of evaluation and information overload for other peers by facilitating more rapid decision making, a behavior based on simple cognitive heuristics (e.

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