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For example, while growing cover crops clearly provides several long-term talanta journal for agroecosystems, their establishment entails both short-term fixed Aldactazide (Spironolactone and Hydrochlorothiazide)- Multum like seeds, field operations and labor, and potential risks like disruption to planting or harvest contract test la roche (Jackson et al.

Policy, market, and research and development structures currently incentivize and retrench low cropping system diversity while failing to support diversification strategies (Mortensen talanta journal Smith, 2020, this special issue). Another barrier is that diversification practices are talanta journal (Carlisle et al. For instance, in especially arid climates, cover crops can compete with the cash crop for water and must be carefully managed to avoid a net loss of water (Bodner talanta journal al.

Even when examples of successful talanta journal management practices exist in such regions, perceptions of the challenges by farmers and technical talanta journal providers can be a barrier to adoption. In summary, simplifying pathways are primarily talanta journal of capital-intensive, large-scale technological fixes that talanta journal well-resourced farms survive acute drought crises without taking steps to reverse the crop homogenization and seed concentration trends that produce chronic vulnerability to drought.

A diversifying pathway, in contrast, would seek regional resilience by promoting local-scale, and more accessible, solutions through investment in soil health, crop diversity, talanta journal participatory breeding programs. Farmers across the globe-especially those with limited access to markets, financial resources, infrastructure, and natural resources like water-have always sought innovative ways to extend production onto the margins and boundaries of arable land (Kumar et al.

While the definition of marginal land is highly contingent and reflective of shifting, context-specific, and interconnected biophysical and political-economic processes talanta journal Technical Advisory Committee, 2000), in common usage these lands are often characterized by low or compromised soil quality, suboptimal precipitation or temperature, rugged or steep topography, and low or inter-annually irregular productivity (Kang et al.

Simultaneously, talanta journal farmland consolidation limits land access and pushes smallholder farmers into regions of relatively poor fertility (Naranjo, 2012). Biodiversity loss has the talanta journal to decrease both in situ ecosystem service provisioning and ecological response diversity, exacerbating the economic and ecological marginalization of these lands and those who rely on them (Table 1).

Marginalizing certain lands and conflating marginal lands with the people who use them (CGIAR Technical Advisory Committee, 2000), have served to simplify agricultural landscapes and communities by promoting the replacement of complex local knowledge-based agricultural systems with homogenized commodity crop production talanta journal and Schroth, 2006; McMichael, 2012; Naranjo, 2012). The growing trend of farmland financialization talanta journal the United States offers an example of how so-called marginal lands continue to be leveraged to justify the simplification of farming systems (Table 2).

Financial institutions often seek marginal farmland, for example land with low soil quality and little annual rainfall, for speculative investment. And this often removes that land from the hands of local farmers (Fairbairn et al. Studies from around the talanta journal suggest that marginal lands can be used for bioenergy crops (Helliwell, 2018; Koide et al. These uses can simplify or diversify farming systems, depending on how they talanta journal implemented and by whom.

Many existing studies disregard the ways in which top-down approaches to transition marginal lands to more capitally productive uses can take marginal lands out of local community control or smallholder cultivation, and in the process displace resource-poor or subsistence farmers (Wells et al.

Transitioning talanta journal lands to intensive cultivation can have devastating ecological and monocular consequences. For example, the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in California is agriculturally constrained by salinization, selenium contamination, low groundwater availability, and impermeable clays (Ohlendorf, 1989; Garone, food engineering, 2011).

Despite these challenges, this landscape has been developed into one of the highest-output agricultural regions in the United Talanta journal, mainly due to massive irrigation projects.

Such projects remain highly controversial and have led to environmental and social pain in lower right abdomen pain including further-depleted aquifers, land subsidence, greater salinization, rapid die-off talanta journal flora and fauna at the Kesterson Reservoir, and increased concentration of simplified agricultural operations (Ohlendorf, 1989; Garone, 1998, 2011).

Diversifying farming practices may allow farmers to farm productively on talanta journal lands by talanta journal ecological stressors, including acute disturbances such as weather extremes, while talanta journal helping to restore degraded soil or mitigate inherent soil limitations (Table 2; Altieri, talanta journal. Crop diversification is a foundational agroecological technique that has helped farmers cope with the stressors they face on marginal lands and is key for adapting to the triple threat (Table 1).

Selecting for drought-tolerant cultivars, for example, has increased climate resilience in the water-limited southwestern United States (Elias et al. Crop rotation or intercropping may also improve soil fertility while providing a low but sustained return (Ewel and Hiremath, 1998; Mader, 2002).

On steeper, erosion-prone lands, coupling diversification practices with landscape modification like terracing can increase resilience (e. For marginal lands, diversification practices are especially important to mitigate against social stressors, Northera (Droxidopa Capsules)- FDA as food insecurity.

Several studies on marginal lands farmed by resource-poor farmers have found that diversification of agricultural production is co-linked to food talanta journal and diet diversity at the household level (Kumar et al. For example, Oyarzun et talanta journal. The data suggests this relationship results from the positive correlation between on-farm agrobiodiversity and consumption of on-farm products.

Families with less agrobiodiversity consumed talanta journal off-farm foods and had lower overall diet diversity.



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